Biology 237 Unit 1 Objectives

The Skeletal System

14. Identify the functions of the skeletal system and the organs which comprise it.

15. Identify, locate and describe the characteristics of the following components of a bone and relate to skeletal functions: cancellous (spongy) bone, cortical (compact) bone, red marrow, yellow marrow, periosteum, Sharpey's fibers, endosteum, articular cartilage, diaphysis, epiphysis, epiphyseal plate, medullary canal.

16. Identify the location, arrangement and function of the following components of bone (osseous) tissue: Haversian system (osteon), Haversian canal, lacunae, canaliculi, lamellae, Volkmann's canals.

17. Distinguish between endochondral and intramembraneous ossification with regard to location and the characteristics of each process. Terms: primary ossification center, secondary ossification center, periosteal bud, osteoid, cartilage model, membrane model.

18. Distinguish between the following cells found in bone as to function and location: osteoprogenitor cells, osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts.

19. Describe the importance of bone remodeling and growth and its relationship to calcium homeostasis. Identify cells, hormones, minerals and vitamins involved and their functions, and the impact of stress. Terms: hydroxyapatite, appositional growth, osteoid seam, bone resorption, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, growth hormone, estrogen, androgens, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, Paget's disease.

20. Describe the events which occur to heal a fracture of a bone: hematoma, fibrocartilage callus, bony callus, bone remodeling.

Short List of Bones and Contours:

The following is a short list of bones and contours to learn for lecture. Bones will mostly be covered in the laboratory and you will receive a more complete list there.

General Terms:

long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, sesamoid bones, wormian bones

bone contours:

process, condyle, tuberosity, tubercle, foramen

meatus, sinus, fossa, spine.

bones: contours:

cranial bones

frontal paranasal sinuses (4) nasal conchae

parietal sutures (4) fontanels (6)

occipital foramen magnum occipital condyles

temporal mastoid process external acoustic meatus

ethmoid perpendicular plate

sphenoid sella turcica

facial bones

zygomatic zygomatic arch


mandible TMJ




vertebral column

atlas vertebral foramen

axis spinous process (spine) dens (odontoid process)

cervical v. lamina transverse foramina

thoracic v. arch

lumbar v. transverse process

sacrum body of vertebra

coccyx articular processes and facets

ribs and sternum

true ribs costal cartilage

false ribs

floating ribs


body of sternum

xiphoid process

pectoral girdle

clavicle glenoid fossa spine of scapula

scapula acromion process coracoid process

arm and hand

humerus head of humerus trochlea

radius tuberosities of humerus and radius

ulna olecranon process coronoid process




pelvic girdle

coxal (hip) bone greater sciatic notch

pubis symphysis pubis

ischium true pelvis ischial tuberosity

ilium acetabulum iliac crest

leg and foot

femur head of femur

tibia greater and lesser trochanters

fibula condyles of femur and tibia

patella lateral and medial malleolus

tarsals tibial tuberosity




Other Terms:

scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis,
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