alink="#ff0000" bgcolor="#c0c0c0">

BIOLOGY 248L Lab Guide


Revised: June 10, 2003 .

Contents


Precautions; Required Materials

Cardiovascular System: Blood

Cardiovascular System: Heart

Electrocardiography, Blood Pressure

Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels Head, Neck and Arms [Upper Vessels Diagram]

Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels of the Leg [Lower Vessels Diagram]

Respiratory System: Anatomy

Respiratory System: Lung Capacities, Diagnostic Tests, Exercise Physiology

Digestive System [Abdominal Vessels] [Portal System]

Urinary System & Circulation

Endocrine System

Male Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System


INTRODUCTION

Preparation. The key to success in this lab is preparation! Prior to each lab you should prepare by completing the reading assignments and the written lab manual exercises, studying the appropriate tables and figures in your books and syllabus, and writing out definitions to terms to know in your syllabus. An appropriate definition in anatomy and physiology will often include information on the location, structure and function of a particular structure or the effectors, dynamics, and regulation of a particular process or function.

It is strongly suggested that you enroll in BIOL 238 and 248L concurrently. These are two components of the same course. They are designed to complement and reinforce one another in course content. In any case you are well advised to purchase and use the textbook for BIOL 238, or a comparable up-to-date text, in addition to the lab manual for reference, review, and terminology.


 

This Lab utilizes WebCT for assignments and online quizzes, as well as many other resources. 

Student Equipment. We suggest that you purchase a blunt probe and you must purchase vinyl examination gloves to use with the cadavers. You will not be able to effectively study anatomy on the cadavers without them. Both of these items are available at either of the UNM bookstores. You will need around 15 pairs of vinyl gloves over the course of the semester. We suggest that you purchase a number of these and carry them in your book bag so that you do not forget them. Many students purchase lab coats. Cadaver work can leave stains and odors on clothing. Lab coats can be purchased at the North Campus bookstore or at uniform or medical supply stores around Albuquerque.

Lab Materials. Cadaver study will be a vital part of your education. They give a three-dimensional perspective and allow hands-on learning that simply cannot be obtained from diagrams. Due to the cost of using cadavers, many schools have eliminated them from their curricula. Since we use four cadavers for around 500 students each semester, special care must be taken to preserve them as well as our other materials. Do NOT use pencils and pens as probes as these will mark and damage the specimens. The markings around the foramina of our teaching skeletons are evidence of the abuses of the students that came before you. Do not use the labels on the cadavers as handles because many of the structures are fragile and will tear. The cadavers must be kept moist with wetting solution at all times and they should be covered when not in use. please be conscientious in spraying and wrapping cadavers for the benefit of all students using them.

Obviously, with this many students using so few cadavers we cannot actually dissect the cadavers in this class. The dissections are done by students enrolled in a biology class called Prosection (BIOL 447). If you would like to study anatomy in greater detail after taking this course, you are invited to apply for enrollment in prosection. See the course coordinator for further information and an enrollment application.

Special caution must also be taken when using microscopes. With the financial condition of the University, what microscopes we have are very difficult to replace. Take care when carrying microscopes. Be careful not to jam the lenses onto the slides, and be sure that you use only oil on the oil-immersion lenses, and lens cleaning paper on the lenses. The prepared histological slides are also expensive and easily broken. Be careful that you do not drop them or jam the lenses down onto them. Partially as a response to these problems we have developed the Virtual Microscope®, an online tutorial and collection of microscope slides from your laboratory which are available in the laboratory and to any computer with an internet connection.

  To make it easier to study outside of the lab many of the models and specimens used are pictured in WebLab, an interactive tutorial similar in format to the Virtual Microscope®

Examinations. Questions for examinations will be drawn from laboratory exercises from the lab manual, lab lectures given by your T.A., and reading assignments from the text. Use this syllabus as a guide of the depth of knowledge required in this class. The "Terms to Know" lists are the minimal level of knowledge required for a passing grade. Many of the terms are found in the text for BIOL 238.

Back to Top

PRECAUTIONS & REQUIRED MATERIALS

PRECAUTIONS:

Cadavers are preserved in a mild solution of formalin (which produces formaldehyde in water) and phenol, intended to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Both of these are toxic and extended exposure should be avoided. The effect of formalin is mostly as an irritant in the respiratory system and mucous membranes. Although formalin is a suspected carcinogen, studies have not shown it to be mutagenic or teratogenic, i.e., it has not been shown to cause cellular mutations or birth defects. Phenol is a caustic substance that also can burn the skin and mucous membranes.

The wetting solution used in our cadaver lab does not contain these substances. Instead it contains phenoxyethanol and glycerin in water. These substances retard growth of microorganisms while helping to reduce the dessication of tissues. Phenoxyethanol is toxic when ingested.

Exposure to all of these should be limited in the following ways:

1) Gloves and protective clothing: gloves should be worn at all times when using the cadavers to avoid skin exposure. Students must provide their own gloves. Students should wear a lab coat to protect skin and clothing from contamination and stains.

2) Proper ventilation should be maintained by keeping the exhaust system on high when the cadavers are in use, and using a fan to circulate air over the cadavers. If close work with the cadavers results in burning sensation of the nose or eyes, cease the exposure. Pull back away from the specimen, adjust the air flow, or take a break to get some fresh air.

3) Students wearing contact lenses may find it necessary to remove them when working in the cadaver lab. Permeable contact lenses may absorb formalin and cause irritation to the eyes.

If you have any condition that might be affected by exposure to any of the above agents, or which may affect your lab participation in any way, do the following:

1) Notify your lab instructor: your instructor can advise you of ways to minimize the impact on lab work. Also, your lab instructor can be prepared for any situation that might arise.

2) Consult your physician: your physician can give you the best information on what effect the preservatives, etc., may have on your condition and help you to make an informed choice regarding continued participation in the lab.

TEXTS AND OTHER REQUIRED/OPTIONAL MATERIALS:

Required: Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual, Elaine Marieb, 6th Edition. References to exercises in this syllabus are to the above.

Strongly Suggested but Optional:

*1)  Adam Interactive Anatomy Student Lab Guide. Benjamin-Cummings. This is available bundled with the above laboratory manual at a substantial savings off the individual price.

2) Anatomy Coloring Book, Kapit & Elson;

In addition to the above lab manual, students are required to purchase gloves for use in the cadaver lab and with other preserved specimens. Gloves may be obtained at the medical bookstore or at pharmacies, surgical supply stores, etc. Several students can usually split one box of gloves for the entire semester, bringing a pair or two each week for use in the lab. Students are advised to wear a lab coat to protect skin and clothing from contamination and stains; these may be purchased at the bookstore or at uniform shops, etc. Drawing paper and pencils are advised (see instructor for types preferred) for in-lab histology drawings.

Interactive Anatomy

ADAM Interactive Anatomy is a computer program for studying anatomy of the human body. It will be used as an supplement in the laboratory and is available on the laboratory computers. Students may also purchase the student version as a CD ROM for use at home. Where you see the above symbol you will find general directions for what to study. Use of the Adam Interactive Anatomy Student Lab Guide will allow students to follow a more precise plan in their study.

Interactive Physiology

ADAM Interactive Physiology consists of 7 CD ROM disks covering the major body systems. It is available online with purchase of a new Human Anatomy and Physiology, 6th Edition,  or independently. Disks will also be available for student use in the laboratory.

Powerpoint Presentations

Each laboratory session will normally begin with a Powerpoint™ presentation illustrating the tissues and organ system to be studied. These presentations are available on the web at: http://biology.unm.edu/anatomy/ppt.htm Also linked to this page are histology and pathology slides, lecture class notes, and this manual.

Histology Modules

You will also find relevant histology modules at http://webanatomy.net/histology/histology.htm 

Back to Top

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD



TERMS TO KNOW

erythrocyte

megakaryocyte (stem cell)

platelet

leukocyte

neutrophil

eosinophil

basophil

lymphocyte

monocyte

macrophage

neutrophilia

neutropenia

eosinophilia

lymphocytosis

leukocytosis

leukopenia

hemacytometer

physiological polycythemia

polycythemia vera

hemoglobin

anemia

microcytic anemia

hypochromic cells

hematocrit (VPRC or PCV)

coagulation

prothrombin

thrombin

fibrinogen

fibrin

blood type

agglutination

LAB PROTOCOL

I. Testing your blood is optional, and is only to be done under supervision. If you test your own blood, the data required is
to be based on it. If not, the data may be based on blood tested from another student. 

1) Record the blood type and make a drawing which shows the agglutination observed with Anti-A and Anti-B antiserum corresponding to that type.
Be able to recognize any blood type from the agglutination pattern. 

2) Record the hematocrit and determine if it is within the normal range. If you don't have actual data to use, sketch exactly what the capillary tube would look like for a sample with a normal hematocrit. Explain the significance of values which are above or below normal. 

3) Make a drawing showing unstained red cells, white cells, and platelets, and stained neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. You may
use actual microscope slides, or The Virtual Microscope®. Be able to recognize all the standard blood cell types. You
may submit this assignment as a hard copy to your instructor, or upload an electronic file to WebCT. WebCT will only
show the assignment as "submitted" if you upload the electronic file.

II. Materials:

A. Alcohol swabs, lancets and/or Autolets w/ lancets and platforms

B. Max pencils, toothpicks *

C. Antisera A and B, D

D. Clean glass slides (*DO NOT RE-USE)

E. Heparinized capillary tubes *

F. Clay for plugging capillary tubes

G. Centrifuge

H. Hematocrit reader

I.. Prepared stained blood slides

J. Histology slides; See the Virtual Microscope®

see also: http://webanatomy.net/histology/blood.htm 



*These items are to be disposed of in the sharps container. DO NOT RE-USE!

III. Procedures:

(Students work in teams, sharing data with other team members. HOWEVER, students should draw and handle ONLY their own blood or use gloves to avoid contamination.)

A. Blood type: Using glass slide marked as below with a wax pencil, determine A, B, O type. Warming plate is also provided for use in determining Rh (D) [optional].    

 

Blood Typing















B. Blood smear: Using clean glass slides, make a smear as shown below:

After air drying, observe unstained blood under a microscope.

Identify: erythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets.

Observe prepared stained blood smear or the Virtual Microscope® and identify: erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes (other leucocytes optional per instructor) and platelets.

Making a Blood
Smear











C. Hematocrit: Use a fresh finger stab to fill (at least half full) a heparinized capillary tube with blood. Place tubes in centrifuge (balance them) and spin for about 5 min. Use hematocrit reader to determine values and compare with norms.

Hematocrit

















Back to Top

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: HEART



TERMS TO KNOW

mediastinum

apex of heart

pericardial cavity

parietal pericardium

visceral pericardium (epicardium)

myocardium

endocardium

right atrium

left atrium

right ventricle

left ventricle

ventricular (interventricular) septum

right atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve

left atrioventricular (bicuspid, mitral) valve

pulmonary semilunar valve

aortic semilunar valve

chordae tendineae

papillary muscles

superior vena cava

inferior vena cava

pulmonary artery

pulmonary veins

aorta

aortic arch

right coronary artery

posterior interventricular artery

marginal artery

left coronary artery

anterior interventricular artery (left anterior descending, LAD)

circumflex artery

coronary sinus

great cardiac vein

middle cardiac vein

ductus arteriosum

ligamentum arteriosum

foramen ovale

auricle

LAB PROTOCOL

Identify the structures from Terms List seen on the heart models and cadaver hearts. Using these items be able to describe blood flow through the heart.
Also use the "Cardiac Simulator" to describe the cardiac cycle. In addition to the heart models and cadaver hearts seen in the lab, you may also make use of
"WebLab" for the heart study. 

I. Cardiovascular plan: Brief discussion of systemic vs. pulmonary circulation and circulatory plan in order to understand the heart's role; explanation of blood flow through the heart.

II. Anatomy of the Heart:

A. Materials:

1. heart models

2. sheep hearts

3. human cadaver hearts, in situ and dissected

4. cardiac simulator

B. Procedures:

1. Identify parts on models, relate structures to blood flow.

2. Dissect sheep hearts (one per 3 or 4 students) and identify parts; relate to functions and blood flow.

3. Identify parts on cadaver, relate to functions and blood flow.

4. Discuss steps of cardiac cycle and relate to blood flow through heart using cardiac simulator.

5. View histology slides: http://webanatomy.net/histology/cardiac_histology.htm  

Interactive Anatomy

Views relevant to the heart:

Dissectible anatomy, Male, Anterior view, Window centered on chest, Layer indicator 173

Dissectible anatomy, Male, Anterior view, Window centered on chest, Layer indicator 174

Dissectible anatomy, Male, Lateral view, Window centered on chest, Layer indicator 219

Dissectible anatomy, Male, Lateral view, Window centered on chest, Layer indicator 220

3D Anatomy, 3D Heart, Anterior Cusp of Mitral Valve

3D Anatomy, 3D Heart, Anterior Cusp of Tricuspid Valve


Interactive Physiology - Cardiovascular Module

Sections to study

Cardiac Cycle

Cardiac Output

Anatomy Review - The Heart

The Heart


Back to Top

ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY AND BLOOD PRESSURE



TERMS TO KNOW

first heart sound

second heart sound

heart murmur

stenosis

valvular incompetence

prolapsed valve

regurgitation

sinoatrial (SA) node

atrioventricular (AV) node

Bundle of His

bundle branches

Purkinje fibers

electrocardiogram (ECG)

limb leads

Einthoven's triangle

P wave

QRS complex

T wave

dicrotic notch

cardiac cycle

systolic pressure

diastolic pressure

systole

diastole

sphygmomanometer

Korotkoff sounds

bradycardia

tachycardia

fibrillation

ecotopic beat

heart block

LAB PROTOCOL

I. Electrocardiography, Exercise 31

A. Materials

1. ECG recording equipment:

a. Cardiocomp computer program/Laser computer

b. Lifepaks (if available)

c. stick-on electrodes for above

B. Procedures

1. Describe conduction system and relationship to ECG.

2. With the ECG recording machine, obtain ECG trace and identify each wave. Determine intervals and compare with normal. Calculate pulse. If the Cardiocomp system is available, use the data analysis feature to compare ECGs using different Leads and vector analysis.

3. Use Lifepak (if available) to obtain standard ECG paper recording.

II. Blood Pressure and Pulse, Exercise 33

A. Materials

1. sphygmomanometers and stethoscopes

2. Propak units, stick-on electrodes

B. Procedures

1. Explain rationale for blood pressure and pulse measurements.

2. Perform the exercises. (The following sections are per instructor: auscultation of valves, inaccessible pulse points, effect of nicotine, skin color as indicator of local circulation.)

Interactive Physiology - Cardiovascular Module

Sections to study:

Intrinsic Conduction System

Cardiac Action Potential

Measuring Blood Pressure

Factors That Affect Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure Regulation


Back to Top



CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:

BLOOD VESSELS I;

HEAD, NECK AND ARMS



See [Selected Vessels of the Head, Neck and Arms]

TERMS TO KNOW

General:

artery

arteriole

capillary

venule

vein

tunica externa (adventitia)

tunica media

elastic lamina

tunica interna (intima)

endothelium

semilunar valves

Arteries:

aorta

brachiocephalic (innominate)

common carotid

carotid sinus

carotid body

internal carotid

external carotid

superior thyroid

lingual

facial

subclavian

vertebral

thyrocervical trunk

internal thoracic (mammary)

axillary

thoraco-acromial

subscapular

circumflex humeral (anterior, posterior)

brachial

deep brachial

radial

ulnar

interosseus

Veins:

superior vena cava

brachiocephalic (innominate)

internal jugular

subclavian

vertebral

external jugular

axillary

cephalic

basilic

median cubital

median

brachial

radial

ulnar

Lymph System:

lymph node

cisterna chyli

thoracic duct

right lymphatic duct

thymus

spleen

lymphatic vessels

LAB PROTOCOL

I. Blood vessel histology, Exercise 32.

A. Materials:

1. microscope slides and Virtual Microscope®

2. IP: Blood Vessel Structure and Function

B. Procedures: Identify the structural characteristics of each type of vessel and relate them to vessel function.

II. Blood vessel identification, Exercise 32.

NOTE: Students should look at relevant text illustrations for more detailed treatment of vascular pathways.

A. Materials:

1. ADAM Interactive Anatomy - Cardiovascular System, Arteries and Veins

2. transparencies

3. cadavers

B. Procedures: Identify the locations and functions of vessels listed under "Terms to Know."

III. Lymphatic System, Exercise 35.

A. Materials:

1. Microscope slides and/or Virtual Microscope® :

a. artery and vein, c.s.

b. lymph node

2. transparencies

3. Histology slides; see also: http://webanatomy.net/histology/vascular_histology.htm 

B. Procedures:

1. Discuss the functions of lymphatic system.

2. Identify the components of lymphatic system and their location.

3. Identify the structure and function of lymph nodes.

C. Suggestion: Make drawings for each body region, illustrating branching pathways for arteries and veins.

III. Lymphatic System, Exercise 35.

A. Materials:

1. ADAM Interactive Anatomy - The Lymphatic System

2. microscope slides showing lymph nodes

B. Procedures:

1. Discuss the functions of lymphatic system.

2. Identify the components of lymphatic system and their location.

3. Identify the structure and function of lymph nodes.

ADAM Interactive Physiology - Cardiovascular Module

Blood Vessel Structure and Function

Autoregulation and Capillary Dynamics

Interactive Anatomy

Vascular System:

Atlas Anatomy, Region, Head and Neck, Arteries of Head and Neck (Lat).

Atlas Anatomy, Region, Head and Neck, Veins of Head and Neck (Lat.).

Atlas Anatomy, Region, Head and Neck, Cerebral Arterial Circle

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on neck, Layer Indicator 246

Atlas Anatomy, Region, Upper Limb, Arteries of the Upper Limb (Ant)

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on right arm, Layer Indicator, 5, superfilcial veins of the arm.

Lymph System:

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on chest, Layer Indicator 62, right and left lymph drainage.

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on chest, Layer Indicator 164, thymus.

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on chest, Layer Indicator 212, spleen

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on chest, Layer Indicator 263, chyle cistern, thoracic duct.

Atlas Anatomy, System, Lymphatic, Lymph Flow of Head (Lateral)

Atlas Anatomy, System, Lymphatic, Lymph Flow of Tongue (Dorsal)

Browse other views of the Lymphatic System

 





CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:

BLOOD VESSELS II:

VESSELS OF THE LEG

[See Selected Vessels of the Lower Body]

TERMS TO KNOW

Arteries:

internal iliac

external iliac

superior gluteal

inferior gluteal

femoral

deep femoral

medial femoral circumflex

lateral femoral circumflex

popliteal

genicular

anterior tibial

posterior tibial

peroneal

veins:

internal iliac

external iliac

femoral

superficial epigastric

great saphenous

medial femoral circumflex

lateral femoral circumflex

deep femoral

popliteal

small saphenous

anterior tibial

posterior tibial

LAB PROTOCOL

Blood vessel identification, Exercise 32.

NOTE: Students should look at relevant text illustrations for more detailed treatment of vascular pathways.

A. Materials:

1. ADAM Interactive Anatomy

2. transparencies

3. cadavers

B. Procedures: Identify the locations and functions of vessels listed under "Terms to Know."

C. Suggestion: Make drawings for body region, illustrating branching pathways for arteries and veins.

Interactive Anatomy

Atlas Anatomy, Region, Lower Limb, Arteries of the Lower Limb (Ant).

Atlas Anatomy, Region, Lower Limb, Arteries of the Lower Limb (Post).

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on upper thigh, Layer Indicator 3, great spahenous vein



Back to Top

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM I: ANATOMY

TERMS TO KNOW

nares (nostrils)

nasal cavity

hard palate

soft palate

pharynx

nasopharynx

oropharynx

pharyngeal tonsils

palatine tonsils

lingual tonsils

hyoid bone

larynx

epiglottis

glottis

thyroid cartilage

cricoid cartilage

ventricular (vestibular) folds

vocal folds

thyroid gland

trachea

primary bronchus

lobar (secondary) bronchus

segmental (tertiary) bronchus

bronchiole

alveolus

lungs

right lung

upper lobe

middle lobe

lower lobe

left lung

upper lobe

lower lobe

thoracic cavity

parietal pleura

visceral pleura

pleural cavity

diaphragm

phrenic nerve

external intercostal muscles

internal intercostal muscles

laryngitis

pneumothorax

pleurisy

asthma

emphysema

LAB PROTOCOL

I. Materials

A. Models:

1. larynx

2. upper respiratory/lung

B. Preserved lungs

C. Cadavers

D. microscope slides and/or the Virtual Microscope® ::

1. lung sections, human et al.

2. larynx, l.s.

3. vocal cord

4. trachea, c.s., l.s.

E. Histology slides; also see: http://webanatomy.net/histology/respiratory_histology.htm 

II. Procedures: Identify the locations and functions of structures listed under "Terms to Know" where visible on models, slides and cadaver specimens.

Interactive Anatomy

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on chest, Layer indicator 162

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on chest, Layer indicator 252, scroll from diaphragm to larynx.

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Medial view, Window centered on chest, Layer indicator 35, Window centered on nasal cavity

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Medial view, Window centered on chest, Layer indicator 96, Window centered on left lung.

Atlas Anatomy, Region, Thorax, Bronchial Tree (Ant)

Atlas Anatomy, Region, Thorax, Bronchial Tree (Post)

 

ADAM Interactive Physiology - Respiratory Module

Pulmonary Ventilation

Gas Exchange

Gas Transport

Control of Respiration

 

Back to Top



RESPIRATORY SYSTEM II:

LUNG CAPACITIES, DIAGNOSTIC TESTS, EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY



TERMS TO KNOW

spirometer

spirogram

inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

tidal volume (TV)

expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

residual volume

total lung capacity

inspiratory capacity

vital capacity (VC)

functional residual capacity

minute respiratory volume (MRV)

alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)

forced expiratory volume (FEV1)

obstructive lung disorder

arteriovenous oxygen difference

barometric pressure

partial pressure

Boyle's Law

Dalton's Law



USE OF THE PROPER (WINDMILL TYPE) SPIROMETER

A simple windmill-type spirometer can be used to reliably measure vital capacity. It cannot be used to accurately measure other lung volumes or to determine FEV (see manual).

To use the spirometer, attach a clean mouthpiece and turn the outer ring until the dial says "zero." While standing, take a few practice breaths and then inspire maximally (not through the spirometer!), followed by a maximum expiration through the spirometer. Really push! The best readings are obtained by blowing very hard. Take the best of three trials and compare these with normal values seen on the charts provided.

LAB PROTOCOL

I. Materials:

A. Ventilation model

B. Clinical spirometers

1. Propper spirometer

2. wet spirometer

C. Spirocomp computer software

II. Procedures:

A. Explain ventilation using the model. Discuss the muscles involved and pressure changes that occur in the lungs and pleural cavity.

B. Measurement of vital capacity and other lung volumes, including FEV1 using windmill, drum type, and computerized spirometry.

C. OPTIONAL: Measurement of oxygen consumption under various conditions.

Back to Top



DIGESTIVE SYSTEM



[See Selected Vessels of the Abdomen]

[Hepatic Portal System]











TERMS TO KNOW

oral cavity

tongue

papillae

taste buds

deciduous teeth

permanent teeth

central incisor

lateral incisor

cuspid (canine)

bicuspids (premolars)

molars

parotid glands

Stenson's ducts

submandibular glands

Wharton's ducts

sublingual glands

ducts of Rivinus

visceral peritoneum

parietal peritoneum

mucosa

submucosa

muscularis

serosa

fibrous adventitia

esophagus

gastroesophageal area (valve)\

functional sphincter

structural sphincter

stomach

fundus

body

pylorus

lesser curvature

greater curvature

rugae

gastric pits

pyloric sphincter

small intestine

duodenum

duodenal papilla

sphincter of oddi

jejunum

ileum

ileocecal sphincter

plicae circulares

villi

microvilli

intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberkuhn)

large intestine

caecum

appendix

ascending colon

transverse colon

descending colon

sigmoid colon

taenia coli

haustra

rectum

anal canal

internal and external anal sphincters

anus

liver

gall bladder

bile

bile salts

hepatic duct

cystic duct

common bile duct

pancreas

pancreatic duct

ampulla of Vater (hepatopancreatic

ampulla)

sphincter of Oddi

parietal peritoneum

visceral peritoneum

peritoneal cavity

greater omentum

lesser omentum

mesentery

peristalsis

segmentation

digestion

absorption

hydrolysis

enzyme

spleen

thoracic aorta

abdominal aorta

celiac trunk

left gastric artery

splenic artery

common hepatic artery

right gastric artery

gastroduodenal artery

hepatic artery

superior mesenteric artery

inferior mesenteric artery

common iliac artery

internal iliac artery

external iliac artery

inferior vena cava vein

hepatic portal vein

splenic vein

superior mesenteric vein

inferior mesenteric vein

suprarenal vein

renal vein

gonadal vein

common iliac vein

internal iliac vein

external iliac vein

LAB PROTOCOL

I. GI Anatomy

A. Materials

1. Models: Torso, stomach, pancreas/duodenum/spleen

2. Cadaver dissection: Both in situ and excised GI tract (see large plastic bucket in therefrigerator) and abdominal blood vessels are prepared.

B. Procedures: Identify the structures and blood vessels of the alimentary canal and related organs and correlate with functions.

II. Histology:

A. Materials:

1. microscope slides and/or Virtual Microscope®

2. overhead transparencies

B. Procedures: Identify the histological structures of selected GI organs and relate structure to function.

C. Histology slides; see also: http://webanatomy.net/histology/digestive_histology.htm 

D. Microscope slides:

1. esophagus, c.s. & l.s.

2. gastroesophageal junction

3. small intestine, c.s.

4. ileum, c.s.

5. appendix, c.s.

6. gallbladder, c.s.

7. rectum, c.s.

Interactive Anatomy

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Lateral View, Window centered on face, Layer Indicator 10, Salivary glands and ducts. Next adjust the Layer Inidcator to 227 for deep subligual and submandibular glands and ducts. Next adjust the Layer Inidcator to 233 and 242 for tongue and associated structures.

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Lateral View, Window centered on chest, Layer Indicator 223, esophagus and associated structures. Next go to Layer Indicator 173 for stomach.

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior View, Window centered on abdomen, Begin with Layer Indicator at 195 and 198 for abdominal cavity,Next go to Layer 204 for stomach, intestines, and associated structures, and then to Layers 205, 208, and 209. Then continue to Layer 215 for pancreas and associated structures.

 

Back to Top



URINARY SYSTEM



TERMS TO KNOW

Kidney:

cortex

medulla

renal pyramid

renal papilla

calyx (major, minor)

renal pelvis

nephron

glomerulus

glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

afferent arteriole

efferent arteriole

proximal convoluted tubule

loop of Henle

distal convoluted tubule

collecting tubule (duct)

peritubular capillaries

vasa recta

ureter

urinary bladder

rugae

trigone

urethra

sphincter vesicae

sphincter urethrae

glomerular filtration

tubular reabsorption

Blood Vessels:

suprarenal artery and vein

renal artery and vein

interlobar arteries & veins

arcuate arteries & veins

interlobular arteries & veins

Adjacent Structures (male):

seminal vesicles

prostate gland

vas deferens

LAB PROTOCOL

I. Urinary System

A. Materials

1. Models: Urinary system, kidney

2. Cadaver dissection: Both in situ urinary system and excised kidneys (see bucket in refrigerator) are prepared.

3. Sheep kidneys for student dissection

4. Microscope slides and/or the Virtual Microscope®

B. Procedures:

1. Identify the gross anatomy of kidney and urinary system using models and dissections and relate anatomical structures to functions.

2. Discuss and identify the histological structure of the kidney using slides and relate to kidney functions and urine production.

C. Histology slides; see also: http://webanatomy.net/histology/urinary_histology.htm

a. kidney sections, from rat, monkey and human

b. human bladder

c. prostatic urethra, human

d. ureter, human

 

D. Microscope slides and/or the Virtual Microscope® :

1. kidney sections, from rat, monkey and human

2. human bladder

3. prostatic urethra, human

4. ureter, human

 

II. Urinalysis [Optional]:

A. Materials:

1. Clinical test strips

2. Urinometers--for specific gravity

3. Centrifuge tubes and centrifuge--for microscopic examination of sediment

B. Procedures: Perform urinalysis as per Exercise 41.

Interactive Anatomy

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on abdomen, Begin with Layer Indicator at 234, scroll to Layer Indicator 238 and 242 for the external and internal anatomy of the kidney, and the ureter.

Atlas Anatomy, Male, Anterior, System, Urinary, Renal Arteries

Atlas Anatomy, Male, Anterior, System, Urinary, Diagram of Nephron

Atlas Anatomy, Male, Anterior, System, Urinary, Diagram of Renal Glomerulus

ADAM Interactive Physiology - Urinary Module

Glomerular filtration, Early filtrate processing, Late filtrate Processing.

 

Back to Top





ENDOCRINE SYSTEM



TERMS TO KNOW



thyroid gland

follicles

follicular cells

parafollicular cells

thyroglobulin

thyroxine

calcitonin

parathyroid glands

parathyroid hormone

thymus

pancreas

pancreatic duct

acini

islets of Langerhans

insulin

glucagon

somatostatin

adrenal (suprarenal) gland

capsule

cortex

zona glomerulosa

zona fasiculata

zona reticularis

corticosteroids

mineralcorticoids

aldosterone

glucocorticoids

cortisol

medulla

epinephrine

norepinephrine

pineal gland

melatonin

pituitary

adenohypophysis

growth hormone (somatotropin)

prolactin

thyrotropin (TSH)

adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

luteinizing hormone (LH)

neurohypophysis

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

oxytocin

LAB PROTOCOL

Endocrine System, Exercise 27:

A. Materials

1. Models which include endocrine glands

2. Cadaver dissections

3. microscope slides and/or the Virtual Microscope®

B. Procedures:

1. Identify locations and anatomical features and relate glands to functions.

2. Discuss and identify histological structure of the glands using slides and relate structures to functions.

C.Histology slides; see also: http://webanatomy.net/histology/endocrine_histology.htm 

D. Microscope slides and/or the Virtual Microscope® :

1. thyroid, sec.

2. parathyroid, sec.

3. hypophysis, sec. showing anterior and posterior

4. adrenal, sec.

5. thymus, sec.

6. pancreas, sec.

Interactive Anatomy

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Lateral View, Window centered on head, Layer indicator 288, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland.

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior View, Window centered on neck, Layer indicator 77, thyroid gland.

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior View, Window centered on neck, Layer indicator 164, thymus gland

Atlas Anatomy, System, Endocrine, Glands of the Head and Neck (Ant)

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior View, Window centered on upper abdomen, Layer indicator 232, adrenal gland; Change Layer Indicator to 214, pancreas

 

Back to Top

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

scrotum

testes

tunica albuginea

tunica vaginalis

semininerous tubules

spermatogenesis

spermatogonium

primary spermatocyte

secondary spermatocyte

spermatid

spermatozoa

sertoli cells

interstitial cells of Leydig

testosterone

LH

FSH

rete testis

efferent ducts (vasa efferentia)

epididymis

vas (ductus) deferens

ampulla of vas deferens

common ejaculatory duct

spermatic cord

cremaster muscle

testicular a. & v.

prostate gland

prostatic urethra

seminal vesicles

bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands

penis

penile urethra

corpora cavernosa

corpus cavernosum urethrae

(corpus spongiosum)

glans penis

prepuce

LAB PROTOCOL

Male Reproductive System, Exercises 43 & 44:

A. Materials:

1. Models of male anatomy

2. Cadaver dissections

3. microscope slides and/or the Virtual Microscope®

B. Procedures:

1. Identify indicated structures and relate to functions.

2. Identify histological features and relate to functions.

C. Histology slides; see also: http://webanatomy.net/histology/male.htm

D. Microscope slides and/or the Virtual Microscope® 

1. testis, sec.

2. epididymis c.s.

3. seminal vesicle sec.

4. prostate sec.

5. penis, c.s.

6. sperm smear

 

Interactive Anatomy

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Anterior, Window centered on pelvic region, Layer indicator 180, Testis and associated structures.

Dissectible Anatomy, Male, Medial View, Window centered on pelvic region, Layer indicator 49, Penis, testis, and associated structures.

Atlas Anatomy, System, Reproductive, Male Superficial Perineal Space 1.

 

Back to Top

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM



TERMS TO KNOW

vulva

perineum

mons pubis

labia majora

labia minora

prepuce of clitoris

clitoris

paraurethral glands

vagina

greater vestibular glands

hymen

uterus

cervix

endometrium

myometrium

menstrual cycle

uterine (fallopian) tubes

infundibulum

isthmus

fimbriae

ovary

ovarian cycle

primordial follicle

primary follicle

secondary follicle

Graafian follicle

corpus luteum

atretic follicle

corpus albicans

oogenesis

primary oocyte

secondary oocyte

ovum

polar body

estrogens

estradiol

progesterone

LH

FSH

suspensory ligament of ovary

ovarian ligament

broad ligament

round ligament

breast

glandular lobes

lactiferous ducts

suspensory ligaments

areola

nipple

fertilization

implantation

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

pregnancy tests

embryo

amniotic sac

amniotic fluid

amniocentesis

ultrasound

placenta

estrogens

progesterone

umbilical cord

umbilical arteries

umbilical vein

fetus

gestation

parturition

labor

oxytocin

prostaglandins

dilation stage

expulsion stage

placental stage

ovarian artery

ovarian vein

LAB PROTOCOL

Female Reproductive System, Exercises 42 & 43:

A. Materials:

1. Models of male anatomy

2. Cadaver dissections

3. microscope slides and/or the Virtual Microscope®

B. Procedures:

1. Identify indicated structures and relate to functions.

2. Identify histological features and relate to functions.

C. Histology slides; see also: http://webanatomy.net/histology/female.htm 

D. Microscope slides and/or the Virtual Microscope® :

1. ovary secs. showing Graafian follicles, corpus luteum, etc.

2. uterus sec.

3. Fallopian tube, c.s.

4. cervix, sec.

5. vagina, sec.

6. placenta, sec.

7. mammary gland, sec.

Interactive Anatomy

Dissectible Anatomy, Female, Anterior, Window centered on pelvic region, Layer Indicator 3, external genitalia.

Dissectible Anatomy, Female, Anterior, Window centered on pelvic region, Layer Indicator 226, internal genitalia.

Dissectible Anatomy, Female, Medial View, Window centered on pelvic region, Layer Indicator 48, internal genitalia.

Atlas Anatomy, System, Reproductive, Female Pelvic Diaphragm

Atlas Anatomy, System, Reproductive, Fascia in Female Pelvis (Med.)

Atlas Anatomy, System, Reproductive, Female Pelvic Organs (Ant)

 


Back to Top