BIOL 237

Sample Questions

Neurology and Neurophysiology


Questions 1through 5 refer to the diagram below: Assume the threshold for producing an action potential is -15 mv.


Text Box:  1. Response A shows:

Choices: (1) hyperpolarization, (2) depolarization,

(3) a graded potential, (4) EPSP, (5) IPSP.

Answers: (A) 1, 3, and 5, (B) 2, 3, and 4, (C) 1 and 4 only,

(D) 2 and 5 only.


2. Response C is caused by only a single input to this neuron .

Response C illustrates: (A) temporal summation,

(B) spatial summation.


3. In this example an action potential _____ be produced.

(A) would, (B) would not.


4. If A and C occurred simultaneously, it would result in:

(A) temporal summation to produce threshold depolarization,

(B) spatial summation to produce threshold depolarization,

(C) no threshold depolarization produced.


5. The response seen in A is due to:

(A) Opening of chemically-gated Na+ channels

(B) Opening of chemically-gated K+ channels

(C) Opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels

(D) Opening of voltage-gated K+ channels



6 through 11 Matching: Answers may be used more than once or not at all.

(A) fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus (considered as a single tract), (B) spinocerebellar tract,

(C) spinothalamic tract, (D) all of the above, (E) A and B only, (F) A and C only.


6. First order neuron is a unipolar neuron

7. Makes a stop in the thalamus.

8. Makes a stop in the medulla.

9. Destination is on the other side of the brain from the origin of sensory stimuli.

10. Muscle spindles would send signals through this tract.

11. An interneuron in a withdrawal reflex would send a fiber through this tract.



12. The extrapyramidal tracts:

(A) carry signals which go to the voluntary muscles,

(B) carry signals which are responsible for maintaining balance and muscle bone,

(C) originate in a part of the brain,

(D) all of the above, (E) B and C only.

13. The conductive region is characterized by having:

(A) chemically-gated ion channels, (B) voltage-gated ion channels,

(C) both chemically and voltage gated ion channels, (D) vesicles of neurotransmitter, (E) both C and D.


Questions 14 through 18 Matching: Refer to action potential diagram below:

Text Box:  NOTE: A through G indicate levels of membrane polarity; H and I indicate time periods.


14. At this membrane polarity Na+ activation gates open.

Use letters A-G from the diagram.


15. This is the point at which voltage-gated K+ channels open.

Use letters AG from the diagram.


16. Na+ activation gates are closed and inactivation gates are open at this point. Use letters A-G from the diagram.


17. The membrane cannot be stimulated during this period. Use H or I only


18. This indicates hyperpolariztion.

Use letters A-F from the diagram.





19 through 23 Matching. Match the nerve below with the correct description. Not all letters are used.


(A) axillary, (B) phrenic,, (C) pudendal, (D) obturator, (E) radial, (F) ulnar, (G) peroneal.


19. If this nerve is blocked you would loose sensation from the external genitalia.


20. If this nerve is damaged you could not breathe on your own.


21. Inflammation of this nerve would impair elbow extension.


22. The dorsiflexor muscles are innervated by this nerve.


23. This nerve comes from the lumbar plexus.



Questions 24 through 30 apply to the following diagram of the spinal cord cross section:


Text Box:  24. Which area would contain oligodendrocytes?

(A) 6, (B) 7, (C) 8, (D) 9.


25. Which area would contain most astrocytes?

(A) 6, (B) 7, (C) 8, (D) 9.


26. Which are multipolar neurons?

(A) 3, (B) 10, (C) 14, (D) A and B, (E) B and C.


27. Motor neuron axons are indicated by:

(A) 1, (B) 12, (C) 14


28. Ependymal cells would be found in:

(A) 6, (B) 7, (C) 8, (D) 9.






29. When a stretch reflex is operating with Muscle A, which of the following is true about its antagonist B?

(A) A stretch reflex is also operating with B, (B) a tendon reflex is operating with B,

(C) Muscle B will be inhibited, (D) Both A and C, (E) Both B and C.


30. The conus medullaris is found at level what position in the vertebral column?

(A) C8, (B) L2, (C) T5, (D) the sacrum



31 through 35 Matching: Answers may be used more than once.

(A) receptive region, (B) trigger region, (C) conductive region, (D) secretory region.

31. This area contains only chemically gated ion channels.

32. Contains vesicles of neurotransmitter.

33. This area possesses only voltage gated ion channels.

34. This area is the long process of the axon.

35. This area is the axon hillock of multipolar neurons.



36. Cerebrospinal fluid is found in which of the following:

(A) central canal of spinal cord, (B) subdural space, (C) subarachnoid space, (D) pia mater,

(E) all of the above, (F) all except D.


37. An epidural anesthetic is applied:

(A) between the dura mater and the arachnoid, (B) outside the dura mater, (C) beneath the arachnoid.


38. In the knee jerk reflex, tapping the patellar tendon with a rubber mallet simulates:

(A) tendon and muscle stretch, (B) tendon stretch and muscle contraction, (C) a withdrawal reflex.



39. Saltatory conduction makes impulse transmission faster in the:

(A) peripheral nerve, (B) spinal tract.


40. When withdrawal from pain occurs in one limb, _____ will usually occur in the corresponding limb on the other side. (A) flexion, (B) extension,


41. The intensity of a stimulus corresponds to:

(A) the frequency of sensory stimuli, (B) the number of sensory neurons involved


42. The event which happens immediately after and as a result of calcium ions released into the axon is:

(A) opening of chemically-regulated ion gates, (B) opening of voltage-regulated ion gates,

(C) exocytosis of neurotransmitter from pre-synaptic membrane,

(D) depolarization of post-synaptic membrane.



Questions 43 through 50 apply to diagram below. Assume a repetitive movement of the elbow such as in rowing.

The movement occurring to initiate the reflex is elbow flexion.

Text Box:

43. The receptor for this reflex is:

(A) muscle spindle,

(B) Golgi tendon organ.

44. This reflex is called a reflex.

(A) stretch, (B) tendon, (C) crossed extensor,

(D) withdrawal.


45. Neuron #3 is:

(A) multipolar, (B) unipolar, (C) bipolar.


46. Neuron #1 is: (A) multipolar, (B) unipolar, (C) bipolar.

47. Neuron #2 is: (A) an inhibitory motor neuron, (B) an excitatory motor neuron.

48. Reciprocal inhibition is shown by: (A) pathway 1, (B) pathway 2, (C) pathway 3, (D) not shown.

49. Reciprocal activation is shown by: (A) pathway 1, (B) pathway 2, (C) pathway 3, (D) not shown.

50. Part 4 is located in: (A) the dorsal root ganglion, (B) the ventral root ganglion, (C) the gray matter.