BIOL 237 Sample Test Questions

The Skeletal System



1. The very last cranial region to harden is the:

            (A) anterior fontanel,   (B) posterior fontanel,   (C) wormian bones,  

(D) epiphyseal plate,  (E) sella turcica.


2. The tiny canals which allow osteocytes to connect with one another:

            (A) lacunae,   (B) Sharpey’s fibers,   (C) Haversian canals,    (D) canaliculus.


3. The unit of structure of cortical bone tissue is the:

            (A) lacuna,   (B) osteon,   (C) Haversian canal,    (D) canaliculus.


4 through 8 Matching: Use each answer once only.

            (A) macrophages,   (B) osteoblasts,   (C) osteoclasts,   (D) osteocytes,   (E) fibroblasts.


4. These cells perform phagocytosis in the early stages of bone repair.

5. These cells produce new bone tissue.

6. These cells are stimulated by parathryroid hormone.

7. These cells aid in calcium homeostasis but neither break down nor produce bone tissue.

8. These cells are important in producing an early bone callus.




9. The very last bone region of the following to harden is the:

            (A) anterior fontanel,   (B) diaphysis,   (C) distal epiphyseal plate,  

(D) proximal epiphyseal plate,  (E) pubic symphysis.


10. The type of osteoporosis related to excess parathyroid hormone secretion is:

            (A) senile,   (B) post-menopausal.


11. Lacunae are spaces enclosing the _____:

            (A) macrophages,   (B) osteoblasts,   (C) osteoclasts,   (D) osteocytes,   (E) fibroblasts.


12. Which of the following exhibits endochondral ossification?

(A) the vertebrae,   (B) the scapulae,   (C) the ribs,   (D) the cranial bones,  

            (E) all of the above,   (F) all except D.









Mechanism for Control of Adult Calcium Homeostasis



Questions 13 through 16 are based on the diagram at left.


13. What is the stimulus for this mechanism?

(A) low blood calcium,  

(B) high blood calcium,  

(C) low rates of bone formation,  

(D) exercise.


14. The sensor, control center, and effector are all located in the:  

(A) thyroid gland,   (B) parathyroid gland,   (D) adrenal gland,   (E) pituitary gland.


15. The response of the effector is to secrete:

            (A) calcitonin,   (B) parathyroid hormone,   (C) adrenaline,   (E) growth hormone.


16. The hormone secreted in the previous question does which of the following:

            (A) increases Vit D3 production and calcium absorption from the GI tract,  

(B) increases reabsorption of calcium from the urine in the kidney,  

(C) if necessary increases osteoclast activity in bone tissue,

(D) all of the above,   (E) A and B only.




17. What tissue is shown at left:

            (A) cortical bone,   (B) cancellous bone,   (C) areolar,   (D) hyaline cartilage.


18. What would you find inside A in living tissue:

            (A) osteocytes,   (B) blood vessels,   (C) chondrocytes,  

            (D) bone marrow.